Longest Coral Bleaching Event on Record Continues to Hammer Reefs

By: Bob HEnson , 3:30 PM GMT on March 28, 2016

Even as the El Niño of 2015-16 winds down, coral reefs remain threatened by the longest episode of global-scale bleaching on record. NOAA announced in October 2015 that the third global bleaching event had begun, with reefs from the Florida Keys to Fiji suffering widespread damage over the past year. In February, NOAA scientists announced that the bleaching event was the longest on record. The event is a result of widespread ocean warming related to long-term climate change as well as regional warmings triggered by El Niño, which began in early 2015. The prolonged nature of the bleaching event is especially worrisome because it allows for multiple years of damage during seasonal peaks in upper-ocean temperature, giving the reefs less time to recover. “We may be looking at a 2- to 2½-year-long event,” said Mark Eakin, coordinator of NOAA’s Coral Reef Watch program. “Some areas have already seen bleaching two years in a row.”

In its 2015 annual summary of conditions across U.S. coral reefs, issued on March 7, 2016, NOAA projected that the global bleaching event will likely extend into 2017. Since 2014, the report noted, 100% of all U.S. coral reef areas have experienced at least some level of thermal stress associated with unusually warm waters, with 41% experiencing Alert Level 2 thermal stress (typically associated with widespread bleaching and mortality). Record-breaking events occurred in 2015 near Hawaii, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Florida. Reefs near Hawaii were hard hit by bleaching in both 2014 and 2015.


Figure 1. Bleached coral at Lizard Island, north of Cooktown, Australia, captured by the XL Catlin Seaview Survey in March 2016. The global insurance firm XL Catlin is working with scientific institutions around the world to carry out the ongoing survey, which has collected more than 700,000 panoramic images along nearly one million kilometers. Image credit: XL Catlin Seaview Survey, via globalcoralbleaching.org.

Major damage at Great Barrier Reef
Severe bleaching is now under way across the northern reaches of the Great Barrier Reef, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the world’s great treasuries of marine diversity. At some reefs off far northeast Australia near the tip of Cape York, up to 50 percent of coral have already died. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority classified the unfolding event as Level R3, the most dire, because of severe regional bleaching over the last few days. (R3 can also be triggered if less-severe bleaching is particularly widespread.) “To put it in simple, stark terms, multiple areas of the reef are now dead and dying,” said David Suggett (University of Technology Sydney) in a Conversation essay published last week. South of the hardest-hit area, clouds and heavy rain had tamped down ocean temperatures and reduced the extent of bleaching, according to a March 21 update from the park authority.

“The damage this year seems more localized but much more intense than 1998 and 2002,” Justin Marshall (University of Queensland) told me in an email, referring to past events across the Great Barrier Reef. The focus toward the north this year, he said, is “likely due to [an] unfortunate stack of factors there—the south got more wind and rain for a bit, and that seems to have shielded it a bit.” Marshall is chief investigator of Coral Watch, a nonprofit that fosters public awareness and entrains students, visitors, and others in helping to monitor and protect the reefs.

After conducting an aerial survey north of Cairns that extended some 600 kilometers (270 miles), veteran researcher Terry Hughes (James Cook University) saw evidence of severe bleaching across all but four of the 520 reefs surveyed. Hughes told Australia’s ABC News that he expects roughly half of the bleached coral across the northern Great Barrier Reef to die over the next month. This week his group plans to extend the surveys southward toward Townsville. “How many 100s of reefs blitzed?” he wondered aloud in a tweet, after calling last week’s expedition “the saddest reef trip of my life.” Both Hughes and Marshall are interviewed in this ABC video.


Figure 2. High-alert areas for coral bleaching across the Pacific Ocean for the week beginning March 26, 2016, based on satellite-derived sea surface temperature data. The areas currently at highest risk are concentrated along and south of the Equator, as upper-ocean temperatures are now close to their seasonal peak in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, warmer-than-usual waters directly related to El Niño have enhanced the risk in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Image credit: NOAA Coral Reef Watch


Figure 3. The sequence of events involved in coral bleaching. Image credit: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

How warm water damages reefs
Bleaching is a sure sign of a coral reef in trouble. The brilliant colors associated with coral reefs are produced not only by the reefs themselves (which are animals related to jellyfish or sea anemone) but also by the microscopic algae called zooxanthellae that coexist with the reefs. As the coral send polyps upward and outward from their hard skeletons (Figure 3), the zooxanthellae lodged in the coral tissue carry out photosynthesis and provide nutrients to the coral. In return, the coral provides shelter and carbon dioxide to the algae. Because the algae need sunlight to photosynthesize, coral reefs are located just below the ocean surface in warm tropical and subtropical waters. Stresses such as unusually high water temperatures, increased water acidity, or pollution can disturb the symbiotic relationship between the corals and the algae that live inside them. If water temperatures are more than 1-2°C above their typical warm-season highs for an extended period, the algae may began to photosynthesize too quickly for the coral to handle. To protect its own tissue, the coral may expel the algae, and the grayish-white skeletons of the coral become visible through the now-translucent tissue of the polyps. The more severe and prolonged the bleaching, the more difficult it is for the reef to recover.

Third time is no charm
The global bleaching that struck during and after the “super” El Niño of 1997-98 was a shocker--the first global-scale mass bleaching ever recorded. Although the world’s oceans had been gradually warming for decades, the 1997-98 El Niño was the first time that large sections of coral were exposed to temperatures warm enough to cause extensive bleaching. Some 16% of the world’s reefs died as a result of this mass bleaching. It was followed in 2010 by the second mass global bleaching, again triggered by El Niño on top of long-term warming. About a third of all carbon dioxide emitted by human activity goes into the oceans, where it can degrade coral in another way. Coral growth rates in the Great Barrier Reef have dropped by some 40% in the last 40 years, apparently in large part due to the acidifying influence of human-produced carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans.

Less than a thousandth of the ocean floor is covered by reefs, but these areas play host to a spectacular variety of life--an estimated quarter of all marine species known to exist--and they help support the ocean-based livelihoods of half a billion people. Reefs are under a variety of threats in addition to long-term human-caused warming, including diseases and overfishing. In the Caribbean alone, surveys indicate that reef habitats have declined by more than 50% since the 1970s. While some types of coral may be able to grow upward quickly enough to keep up with modest sea level rise, not all species will be able to adapt to fast-warming temperatures. We may end up seeing a few hardy coral species proliferate in our warming climate, while many others, including some of the most delicate and beautiful creatures on Earth, struggle--and sometimes fail--to adapt to our new and evolving normal. An interesting article by Meehan Crist in The Atlantic touches on some of the efforts being made to preserve and strengthen reefs and the ecosystems they support, including the development of artificial reefs.

We’ll have a new post by Tuesday afternoon.

Bob Henson   


Figure 4. Departures from the 1971-2000 seasonal average in sea surface temperature for February 1998 (top) and February 2016 (bottom), just after the peaks of the “super” El Niño events of 1997-98 and 2015-16. Image credit: IRI


The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

Reader Comments

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167. Fredqwert
9:00 AM GMT on April 04, 2016
Thanks Neapolitan, for clarifying the subtle, or not so subtle distinction that defines correlation vs causation ... such information is always priceless.

Now to address your problem with coral bleaching, and how "in this case ... very clear and direct lines [that] can be drawn between the AGW-exacerbated El Nino ... "

Firstly, there is no actual evidence that this most recent ENSO or previous similar events are directly or even indirectly related to AGW . Again the spectre of causation vs correlation rears its head - not simply with elevated greenhouse gases / global temperatures / powerful ENSO events ... and coral bleaching - but with a more or less parallel increase in agricultural pollution, along with sediment loads from soil disturbance sometimes tens of kilometres away from a coral reef coastline. All of these variables are probably significantly intercorrelated, but the clincher is the fact that human activities adjacent to reefs, while responsible for varying amounts of fossil fuel related emissions, also include disproportionately large amounts of the afore-mentioned soil disturbance and the application of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides - much of which finds its way to the reefs.

Finally, singling out AGW as the primary, of not only cause of coral bleaching, flies in the face of geological history that contains far greater temperature and pH excursions than are currently prevailing - and coral - an ancient organism still survives to this day. What is unique about bleaching episodes over the last three or four decades ? At risk of repetition, ad nauseam: the variables directly related to mechanised land disturbance combined with industrially manufactured fertilizers along with various lethal compounds (lethal to coral reef communities) applied to crops in the general vicinity of river catchments discharging to reef waters, are very likely to be contained in the first (largest) Principal Component that isolates causality from intercorrelation.
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166. Neapolitan
12:41 PM GMT on March 30, 2016
Quoting 164. Fredqwert:

There is much talk and panic over the most recent coral bleaching event that has resulted apparently from the current intense ENSO event superimposed over AGW.  There might be some cause to question the popular theory that places ENSO / AGW as the primary cause of mass coral  bleaching.

Corals  are not recently evolved creatures, and in fact can be traced back via the fossil record to early geologic times, long before the appearance of Vertebrates. It is therefore unlikely that recently observed increases in water temperature and possibly water pH, are primarily responsible for coral bleaching as observed in recent years - given that much higher variations in all these environmental variables have occurred over geological time. Any severe bleaching episodes that might have occurred over the aeons did not wipe out the worlds' corals.

The deleterious effects of river discharge from disturbed and eroded catchments, along with contamination from fertilizers and various pesticide and herbicidal treatments in proximity to drainage basins near coral reefs, are all amplified when a planetary scale event such as ENSO occur. The aforementioned effects of human activity can bring about disruption of species population dynamics, causing plagues of predators such as the Crown of Thorns Starfish along the Great Barrier Reef.
So, do you believe it's a "theory" and not established fact that anomalously warm water causes coral to bleach?

Oh, dear.

It's been known for many, many, many years that coral colonies are subject to thermal stress. That's not to say there aren't other stressors that can negatively affect those colonies, such as pollution. But in this case, very clear and direct lines can be drawn between the AGW-exacerbated El Nino event and the ongoing bleaching event. IOW, while correlation isn't necessarily causation, this time it most definitely is.
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165. Fredqwert
7:00 AM GMT on March 30, 2016
Slight correction: " ... increases in water temperature and possibly water pH... " should read: " .... increases in water temperature and possibly DECREASES in water pH ... " apologies :-)
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164. Fredqwert
6:33 AM GMT on March 30, 2016
There is much talk and panic over the most recent coral bleaching event that has resulted apparently from the current intense ENSO event superimposed over AGW.  There might be some cause to question the popular theory that places ENSO / AGW as the primary cause of mass coral  bleaching.

Corals  are not recently evolved creatures, and in fact can be traced back via the fossil record to early geologic times, long before the appearance of Vertebrates. It is therefore unlikely that recently observed increases in water temperature and possibly water pH, are primarily responsible for coral bleaching as observed in recent years - given that much higher variations in all these environmental variables have occurred over geological time. Any severe bleaching episodes that might have occurred over the aeons did not wipe out the worlds' corals.

The deleterious effects of river discharge from disturbed and eroded catchments, along with contamination from fertilizers and various pesticide and herbicidal treatments in proximity to drainage basins near coral reefs, are all amplified when a planetary scale event such as ENSO occur. The aforementioned effects of human activity can bring about disruption of species population dynamics, causing plagues of predators such as the Crown of Thorns Starfish along the Great Barrier Reef.
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163. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
7:14 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
162. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
7:13 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
161. RitaEvac
7:00 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 155. NttyGrtty:



Yes, but is the beer cold?


I need one, it should be holding at 29F
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
160. WunderAlertBot (Admin)
6:50 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
JeffMasters has created a new entry.
159. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
6:48 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
158. 62901IL
6:48 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 154. Sfloridacat5:

We've got our first warning showing up.



Shields have failed!

Full reverse!

Maintain all-*consoles explode*
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157. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
6:47 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 149. RitaEvac:



It's a meso


Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
156. Grothar
6:47 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
155. NttyGrtty
6:47 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 152. RitaEvac:
Ugly December like day









Yes, but is the beer cold?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
154. Sfloridacat5
6:44 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
We've got our first warning showing up.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
153. Sfloridacat5
6:38 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
We've had two bad beach days in a row. Yesterday the sea fog never burned off at the beach. It was sunny all day in town, but the beach was really foggy.
I checked beach cam at Fort Myers Beach and there's still a decent crowd at the beach even though it's cloudy.
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152. RitaEvac
6:34 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Ugly December like day







Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
151. Sfloridacat5
6:33 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 149. RitaEvac:



It's a meso


It's a pretty large scale circulation.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
150. Envoirment
6:25 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
January hurricane and blob watching in late March, certainly an interesting year so far.

Hopefully we'll be able to see what the fixed CFS is predicting in terms of ENSO later today. I personally have a bad feeling about this year.
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149. RitaEvac
6:20 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 147. Sfloridacat5:

"Blob" definitely has some organization to it. It has a pretty noticeable rotating head with a trailing squall line.



It's a meso
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
148. 62901IL
6:17 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 140. georgevandenberghe:




Shields Mr Scott!


Our shields are being drained! 64%! 42!
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
147. Sfloridacat5
6:15 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
"Blob" definitely has some organization to it. It has a pretty noticeable rotating head with a trailing squall line.
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146. fmbill
6:14 PM GMT on March 29, 2016


I hope Central Florida is ready for a ton of rain Monday!
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
145. fmbill
6:12 PM GMT on March 29, 2016


This spins up briefly from the tail end of a low that crosses Florida on Monday.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
144. RitaEvac
6:08 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Meanwhile it looks like a December day outside, dreary, hazy/foggy, dark overcast
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
143. RitaEvac
5:59 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
The Houston/Galveston region has completely and utterly exploded population wise and development wise. Not necessarily the island of Galveston but on the mainland and inland towards Houston and all areas surrounding Houston now. If a cat 4 not even a cat 5....were to strike Freeport or west end of Galveston on a NW path, I believe this area will make it's headlines.
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142. Grothar
5:58 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 140. georgevandenberghe:




Shields Mr Scott!


The dilithium crystals will never hold, Captain !!!!!!
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
141. fmbill
5:55 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 127. washingtonian115:

Will a storm be able to take advantage of the caribbean waters this year? That is yet to be seen



Cold core, but interesting origin & path.

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
140. georgevandenberghe
5:53 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 130. 62901IL:

Red Alert. Load all torpedo bays. Ready phasers.





Shields Mr Scott!
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
139. washingtonian115
5:48 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 138. RitaEvac:

The GOM is a ticking time bomb for a massive hurricane again. I believe it's time for one unfortunately.
I don't like how the gulf stream is practically hugging the east coast this year as well.Not saying we'll get a hurricane up here but if one were to come up the east coast it wouldn't weaken substantially like what we've seen in the past.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
138. RitaEvac
5:44 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
The GOM is a ticking time bomb for a massive hurricane again. I believe it's time for one unfortunately.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
137. Skyepony (Mod)
5:40 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
136. Skyepony (Mod)
5:37 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Fresh partial ASCAT of that blob in the Gulf of Mexico..
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
135. Patrap
5:18 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
134. Patrap
5:07 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 132. Camerooski:

The weather channel just reported on the local on the 8's that Fort Lauderdale is expected to have severe T-storms tonight with a chance for tornadoes winds of over 50 mph and small hail. Also 5-8 inches of rain? Seems ridiculous imo.


Local on the 8's is the local NWS forecast for a given area...and is not a TWC product.


Previous discussion... /issued 404 am EDT Tuesday Mar 29 2016/

.Strong thunderstorms possible as disturbance passes over South
Florida today...
.Marginal risk of severe weather for South Florida today...

Discussion...
as the weak surface frontal boundary nears South Florida today,
moist air to the south of the front will combine with middle and
upper level energy passing through today to create higher shower
and thunderstorm chances compared to previous days. The main impulse
pushing in aloft from the Gulf of Mexico should arrive at the West
Coast later this morning and push across the southern peninsula
right as peak diurnal heating has provided plenty of available
instability for convection.

Steep lapse rate profiles over much of the area, including cold
500 mb temperatures, will create strong wind and hail concerns for
today with these storms. At the moment, any risk of tornadoes or
supercellular behavior seems less likely due to little available
shear. 0-1 km helicity values over South Florida are well below
100 m2/s2 today. Storm Prediction Center discusses the marginal risk of severe weather
across the region in their day 1 outlook /swody1/.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
133. Patrap
5:05 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Area forecast discussion...updated 
National Weather Service Miami Florida
930 am EDT Tuesday Mar 29 2016

Update...
a short wave over the eastern Gulf of Mexico will continue to move
eastward and across South Florida this afternoon before moving
into the western Atlantic waters tonight. The 12z mia sounding
this morning show that the 500 mb temperatures were around -11c and the
short range models are showing the 500 mb temperatures to cool down to
-12c to -13c this afternoon over the area. At the same time...a 40
to 50 knot middle level jet will be moving through the area with the
short wave. The combination of the short wave...middle level
jet...and the cool air aloft will allow for scattered to numerous
showers and thunderstorms to develop over South Florida this
afternoon. Some of the storms could even become strong to even
severe with the primary impacts being gusty winds up to 50
miles per hour...hail...frequent lightning strikes...and locally heavy
rainfall. Storm Prediction Center also has South Florida in a marginal severe outlook
for this afternoon. Therefore...we will continue to mention the
possible strong to a few severe storms in the severe weather potential statement for today along
with keeping the scattered to numerous probability of precipitation in the forecast.

Rest of the forecast looks good at this time and no other changes 
are planned.

&&

Aviation...
the winds will be light over all of South Florida taf sites today.
There could be an east and West Coast sea breeze developing along
the coasts this afternoon. However...the sea breezes will not move
inland to far this afternoon. Therefore...the taf sites will carry
a light and variable wind flow for today.

Thunderstorms in the vicinity will continue for all of the taf sites for the afternoon
hours today...as a short wave will be moving through the area from
the west which will help to generate thunderstorms. Some of the
storms could become strong to even severe with the primary impacts
being hail, gusty winds, frequent lightning strikes, and heavy
rainfall. At this time will wait on putting a tempo group in for
the taf sites for this afternoon until activity gets going on the
radar. The ceiling and visible will also remain in VFR conditions
outside of any showers and thunderstorms. However...the ceiling
and visible will fall into the IFR conditions with the passage of the
showers and thunderstorms over the taf sites.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
132. Camerooski
5:01 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
The weather channel just reported on the local on the 8's that Fort Lauderdale is expected to have severe T-storms tonight with a chance for tornadoes winds of over 50 mph and small hail. Also 5-8 inches of rain? Seems ridiculous imo.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
131. Patrap
5:01 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
For clarity, being it is Tuesday, is that the Wet or Dry Season in Florida?

tia.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
130. 62901IL
4:59 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Red Alert. Load all torpedo bays. Ready phasers.

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
129. Climate175
4:56 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 127. washingtonian115:

Will a storm be able to take advantage of the caribbean waters this year? That is yet to be seen

The bomb is ticking.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
128. Sfloridacat5
4:55 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Looks like a squall line is starting to form on the southern end of the system.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
127. washingtonian115
4:49 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Will a storm be able to take advantage of the caribbean waters this year? That is yet to be seen
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
126. swflurker
4:42 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
125. Sfloridacat5
4:41 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
I just got a nice clap of thunder from one of the cells developing right over my location in south Fort Myers. It also just started raining heavily. I must be right in the perfect location under the western cell.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
124. Grothar
4:40 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 114. Bucsboltsfan:



Too bad it isn't June. We might have had something interesting to talk about.


Hey, Bucs. We might have something to talk about next week!!!!
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
123. GeoffreyWPB
4:05 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
AREA FORECAST DISCUSSION...UPDATED
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MIAMI FL
930 AM EDT TUE MAR 29 2016

.UPDATE...
A SHORT WAVE OVER THE EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO WILL CONTINUE TO MOVE
EASTWARD AND ACROSS SOUTH FLORIDA THIS AFTERNOON BEFORE MOVING
INTO THE WESTERN ATLANTIC WATERS TONIGHT. THE 12Z MIA SOUNDING
THIS MORNING SHOW THAT THE 500 MB TEMPS WERE AROUND -11C AND THE
SHORT RANGE MODELS ARE SHOWING THE 500 MB TEMPS TO COOL DOWN TO
-12C TO -13C THIS AFTERNOON OVER THE AREA. AT THE SAME TIME...A 40
TO 50 KNOT MID LEVEL JET WILL BE MOVING THROUGH THE AREA WITH THE
SHORT WAVE. THE COMBINATION OF THE SHORT WAVE...MID LEVEL
JET...AND THE COOL AIR ALOFT WILL ALLOW FOR SCATTERED TO NUMEROUS
SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS TO DEVELOP OVER SOUTH FLORIDA THIS
AFTERNOON. SOME OF THE STORMS COULD EVEN BECOME STRONG TO EVEN
SEVERE WITH THE PRIMARY IMPACTS BEING GUSTY WINDS UP TO 50
MPH...HAIL...FREQUENT LIGHTNING STRIKES...AND LOCALLY HEAVY
RAINFALL. SPC ALSO HAS SOUTH FLORIDA IN A MARGINAL SEVERE OUTLOOK
FOR THIS AFTERNOON. THEREFORE...WE WILL CONTINUE TO MENTION THE
POSSIBLE STRONG TO A FEW SEVERE STORMS IN THE HWO FOR TODAY.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
122. Patrap
4:05 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Arctic Sea Ice Levels Are Lower Than They've Ever Been. Again.
What happens in the Arctic doesn't stay in the Arctic. The fate of Greenland is the fate of Miami.
03/28/2016 06:01 pm ET | Updated 16 hours ago



NASA/Operation Ice Bridge This March 27, 2015 NASA/IceBridge photo shows a mixture of young sea ice forming over the East Beaufort Sea.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
121. Patrap
4:00 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
120. Patrap
3:49 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Gawjus and Partly cloudy here in NOLA.

I started painting the House yesterday
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
119. JNFlori30A
3:37 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Quoting 117. Patrap:


Nice overcast day here on the NW side of da blob..
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
118. Patrap
3:33 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
117. Patrap
3:31 PM GMT on March 29, 2016
.."Everybody's doing the Blob-a-motion, come on baby, do the Blob-a-motion'

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About

Cat 6 lead authors: WU cofounder Dr. Jeff Masters (right), who flew w/NOAA Hurricane Hunters 1986-1990, & WU meteorologist Bob Henson, @bhensonweather